Antibiotic Dispensing Practices at Community Pharmacies in Kathmandu and Lalitpur Districts of Nepal

Published on:November 2020
Indian Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 2020; 13(4):336-340
Research Article | doi:10.5530/ijopp.13.4.57

Antibiotic Dispensing Practices at Community Pharmacies in Kathmandu and Lalitpur Districts of Nepal

Authors and affiliation (s):

Nisha Jha1,*, Sunil Shrestha2, Pathiyil Ravi Shankar3, Anil Khadka4, Mukhtar Ansari5, Binaya Sapkota6

1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, NEPAL.

2Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Service Research, Nepal Health Research and Innovation Foundation, Lalitpur, NEPAL.

3IMU Centre for Education, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA.

4Department of Public Health, Nobel College of Health Sciences, Sinamangal, Kathmandu, NEPAL.

5Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Hail, Hail, SAUDI ARABIA. 6Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nobel College, Sinamangal, Kathmandu, NEPAL.


Objectives: Antibiotics are often dispensed irrationally especially in community pharmacies. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibiotic dispensing practices among community pharmacies. Methods: A crosssectional study was conducted in Kathmandu and Lalitpur districts, Nepal from October to November 2018 among the community pharmacies listed in different directories. Systematic random sampling was used to sample 78 community pharmacies based on a 5% margin of error and a 95% confidence level. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 21 for Windows. Results: Out of 78 pharmacies, 54 (69.2%) were in Kathmandu district. Antibiotics were dispensed without a prescription by 67 (85.9%) pharmacies. Brand substitution was seen in 43 pharmacies (55.1%). Antibiotics per prescription were three in 51 cases (65.4), followed by two antibiotics in 27 (34.6%). Advice regarding completing the course of antibiotics was provided by 59 (75.6%) pharmacies and an insufficient course of antibiotics was dispensed in 23 (29.5%) pharmacies. Nine pharmacists (11.5%) replaced prescribed antibiotics with cheaper brands. Azithromycin [69 (22.2%)] was the most dispensed antibiotic followed closely by Amoxycillin [68 (21.9%)]. Conclusion: Dispensing antibiotics without a prescription was seen in most pharmacies which can adversely impact the rational use of antibiotics. The findings of this study may necessitate strengthening the implementation of the framed guidelines for ensuring the safe and rational use of antibiotics.

Key words: Antibiotics, Community pharmacy, Dispensing, Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Pharmacists.


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