Antimicrobial Resistance: Identifying the Major Conflicts of Interest and Way Forward

Published on:August 2017
Indian Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 2017; 10(2):69-77
Invited Article | doi:10.5530/ijopp.10.2.16


Antimicrobial Resistance: Identifying the Major Conflicts of Interest and Way Forward


Authors and affiliation (s):

Samridhi Sharma1, Kemesha Govender1, Kiran Nagaraju1,2, Pratik Chhetri1,3, Thandiwe Menze4, Sunitha C Srinivas1*

1Faculty of Pharmacy, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, SOUTH AFRICA

2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bengaluru, INDIA

3LMIC Chapter Coordinator, Universities Allied for Essential Medicines (UAEM), California, USA

4Principle Faculty Librarian: Science and Pharmacy, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, SOUTH AFRICA.

Abstract:

“We find ourselves on the brink of a post-antibiotic era” – Department of Health Republic of South Africa, 2015.1 According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat to public health.2 AMR causes around 700 000 deaths every year, and is projected to lead to 10 million deaths annually by 2050.3,4 By 2050, 4,73,0000 deaths in Asia and 4,15,0000 deaths in Africa will be attributable to AMR.3 Over-prescription and irrational use of antimicrobials result in the development and spread of AMR, which is worsened by poor infection control in clinics and hospitals as well as by poor sanitation.2 AMR results in more infections, for longer durations; increased duration and frequency of hospital admissions; and increased health-related expenses. Inadequate knowledge is partly responsible for inappropriate prescription, which may further increase morbidity and mortality rates.5–7 Poverty contributes to the increase of AMR, as patients tend to share antimicrobials or use leftovers to treat infections.8 Patients require counselling and education on the correct use of antimicrobials and the importance of hygiene to prevent AMR and to maintain healthy living.7 Wide spread use of antimicrobials in the agricultural industry also contributes significantly to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Large quantities of antibiotics are used for growth promotion, as well as for prophylaxis and to treat infections in intensively farmed animals, to prevent economic losses.9,10 Therefore, due to a potential conflict of commercial interest, the risk of policies failing to tackle AMR is also high.11 While existing antimicrobials are becoming ineffective at a high rate, there is slow to minimal development of new antimicrobial agents.12 READ MORE.............




 

The Official Journal of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India (APTI)
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